Thursday, September 02, 2004

subcellular organelles

Roll call time!

plasma membrane - lipid bilayer; containing various protiens (structural, mol. pumps, selective channels, receptors for hormones and growth factors)

endoplasmic reticulum (ER) - lumen is continuous w/ outer membrane of the nuclear envelope; rough ER (RER [heh ReR, recommended records], protein synthesis!) has outer (cytoplasmic) face studded w/ ribosomes, "flat stacks"; smooth ER (SER, lipid metabolism!) has NO ribosomes, more tubular in shape

golgi apparatus [like the Phish song!] - surrounded by secretory vacuoles in exocrine (secretory) gland cells; membrane exchange pathways:
membrane flow model:
ER -> vesicles -> golgi -> secretory vacuoles -> plasma mem.
membrane shuttle model:
ER <-vesciles-> golgi <-secretory vacuoles-> plasma mem.

lysosomes - contains large number of different acid hydrolases, enz. that catalyze hydrolytic rxns and functions at pH ~5; autophagy (intracellular digestion) vs heterophagy (digestion of foreign stuff, endocytosis!)

mitochondria - energy metabolism!; source of most of the ATP; site of many metabolic rxns; contains enz for citric acid cycle and electron-transport chain; two (!) lipid bilayers, the inner is called cristae; innermost space is the matrix; mitDNA is GC-rich so can isolate by isopycnic (i.e. density-gradient) centrifugation; most mit. enz. are encoded by nucDNA and imported from cytoplasm

peroxisomes - looks like lysosomes but NO hydrolases, instead has oxidative enz. that makes H2O2, e.g. urate oxidase, D-amino acid oxidase, L-amino acid oxidase, alpha-hydroxy acid oxidase, catalase (catalyzes conversion of H2O2 to H2O and O2)

cytoskeleton - centrioles; filaments (microtubules, actin, "intermediate")

centrioles - 9 triplet hollow tubules; pairs at right angles; higher plants lack it

microtubles - during mitosis forms mitotic spindle and attaches to centrioles

ribosomes - site of protein synthesis; composed of RNA and protein; located in:
cytoplasm as polysomes (rosette shaped groups)
outer face of RER
mitochondrial matrix
nucleus - nuclear membrane; nuclear pores; nucleoplasm

nucleolus - synthesis of ribosomal RNA; may have more than 1 per nucleus

chromosomes - somatic vs gametes; autosomes vs sex chromosomes

Hmmm...I wonder if this is how I'll go about with my biochem concept of the day blog: by typing up a "synopsis" of an already condensed book. Or maybe I should go with an outline form with just keywords w/o descriptions. Or maybe I should just type up those that are new or are especially difficult to me. I dunno.

now playing: Soft Machine - Six


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