Wednesday, October 06, 2004


The overall reaction goes something like this:

Glucose -> 2 Pyruvate + 2 H2O
2ADP+ + 2Pi -> 2ATP
2NAD+ -> 2NADH + 2H+

2 ATP are used and 4 ATP are produced = net gain of 2 ATP


Glucose ->

Glucose-6-phosphate by hexokinase (phosphorylation, ATP used) <->

Fructose-6-phosphate by isomerase (isomerization) ->

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate by phosphofructokinase (phosphorylation, ATP used) ->

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and Dihydroxyacetone phosphate by aldolase (retro-aldol condensation)

*Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and Dihydroxyacetone phosphate convert to one another reversibly by isomerase. Then, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate is converted to ->

Glycerate-1,3-bisphosphate by dehydrogenase (phosphorylation+oxidation, NADH produced!) ->

Glycerate-3-phosphate by kinase (phosphorylation, ATP produced!) ->

Glycerate-2-phosphate by mutase <->

Phosphoenol pyruvate by enolase (dehydration, H2O produced) ->

Pyruvate by pyruvate kinase (phosphorylation, ATP produced!)

Pyruvate goes on to:

TCA cycle in aerobic conditions


is converted to ethanol or lactate in anaerobic conditions

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